Ecological destruction caused by cattle ranching, therefore, is often long-term and irreversible. Within a few years, the former rainforest soil becomes exhausted and it washes away. Ranchers are then forced to move to previously undisturbed tracts of forests. (WRM, 43-46). In the Brazilian Amazon, real estate speculation is a major cause of deforestation. A centuries-old practice there is to grant the right of possession to whoever deforests a piece of land. These rights of possessions are soon full rights of ownership. The only thing people have to do to claim land is show that they are using it, and the easiest way for them to do this is by clearing it. (Fearnside, 216). The amount of tropical rainforests which have been lost to dams is alarmingly high. As developing nations seek to 'hydro-industrialize,' the forest becomes increasingly threatened. So far, the reservoirs of large dams worldwide have submerged a land area the size of Italy. Eventually, dams will have flooded about 2,346 kilometers of forest. (WRM,47). The social and ecological effects of the building of dams have been severe. In India, between 1950 and 1975, for example, 479,000 hectares of land was flooded. In Brazil, the Tucurai Dam flooded 271,000 hectares of rainforest. More dams in Central and South America continue to fill up and destroy thousands of acres of virgin forest. (WRM, 47). Mining and industrial development continue to cause more deforestation and ecological degradation. They also aid in social impoverishment of the local inhabitants. Clashes between indigenous people and miners are common occurrences. One example is the Grande Carajas Project in Brazil. Carajas is the site of the world's largest deposit of high-grade iron ore.
In fact, much of the extensive deforestation is now going on, more to meet off-site resource flow or demands than the unavoidable pressure from the local community to meet their sustenance needs. In place of the traditional rapport between the forests and the community, increasing alienation, or at least indifference, has become widespread. The possible ecological implications of large scale deforestation now taking place in humid and sub-humid tropics has caused much concern among scientists, environmentalists, and planners around the world. In order to assess the environmental changes, local and global impact on climate, and degradation of fragile soil resources, it is necessary that solid data is collected from well-designed and adequately equipped long-term studies, planned to quantify the effects of deforestation.
A number of studies in India and Nepal have established that the increased demand for food, livestock and firewood is the direct cause of deforestation. These well intended efforts to increase food production are often unsuccessful and usually result in great environmental damage. The consequences of deforestation in terms of soil erosion, land degradation, nutrient loss, and the disruption of the delicate equilibrium among soil, plants and atmosphere can be seen in the vast tracts of barren and unproductive land where lush green forest once grew.
Soil erosion: Tree roots anchor the soil. Without trees, the soil is free to wash or blow away, which can lead to vegetation growth problems. The WWF states that scientists estimate that a third of the world’s arable land has been lost to deforestation since 1960. After a clear cutting, cash crops like coffee, soy and palm oil are planted. Planting these types of trees can cause further soil erosion because their roots cannot hold onto the soil. "The situation in Haiti compared to the Dominican Republic is a great example of the important role forests play in the water cycle," Daley said. Both countries share the same island, but Haiti has much less forest cover than the Dominican Republic. As a result, Haiti has endured more extreme soil erosion, flooding and landslide issues.
Essay about describe the causes and effects of deforestation
The deforestation of trees not only lessens the amount of carbon stored, it also releases carbon dioxide into the air. This is because when trees die, they release the stored carbon. According to the , deforestation releases nearly a billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere per year, though the numbers are not as high as the ones recorded in the previous decade. Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic (human-caused) source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, ranging between 6 percent and 17 percent. ()
Deforestation Essay - Effects of De-forestation
Deforestation is considered to be one of the contributing factors to global climate change. According to Michael Daley, associate professor of environmental science at Lasell College in Newton, Massachusetts, the No. 1 problem caused by deforestation is the impact on the global carbon cycle. Gas molecules that absorb thermal infrared radiation are called . If greenhouse gases are in large enough quantity, they can force climate change, according to Daley. While oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in our atmosphere, it does not absorb thermal infrared radiation, as greenhouse gases do. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent greenhouse gas. In 2012, CO2 accounted for about 82 percent of all U.S. greenhouse gas, according to the (EPA). Trees can help, though. 300 billion tons of carbon, 40 times the annual greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, is stored in trees, according to .
Immediate effects of deforestation include the washing away of soil in the monsoon season. This is because trees are no longer anchoring and binding the soil and so mud slides take place. The earth is leached of minerals by the large amounts of water. The lack of vegetation also means that there will be very few animals in the area. Most of nutrients are stored in the vegetation and the trees, so if these factors getting bad cycle, our eco-system will be destroyed. Once the tree and plant are cut down, essential nutrients separate easily and are washed out by rainfall. Thus, we would lose the nutrients for our body needs for daily life. If the soil gets dries and cracks under the sun's heat without the shade of the trees, we can't grow any plants since it's lost the soil elements. According to the statistics, nearly 80% of tropical forest soil is now infertile, and they will cause more and more bad eco-system which will effects the animals who live there and their habitats. It may change their genetic as well.
effects of deforestation, causes of ..
Throughout the tropics, rain forests are being cut down. By different methods and for different reasons, people in tropical regions of the world are cutting down, burning, or otherwise damaging the forests. The process in which a forest is cut down, burned or damaged is called "deforestation."Global alarm has arisen because of tropical rain forests destruction. Not only are we losing beautiful areas, but the loss also strikes deeper. Extinction of many species and changes in our global